Thursday, January 31, 2019

Grow Tomatoes under Organic Management-Learn which method gives you the Best Return (A preliminary finding)


Comparative Study on the Cost Of Tomato Production Per Green House (20x5 m2 equipped with drip irrigation) under different mulching conditions

(i) Operating Costs under Plastic Mulching
 Activities
Unit
Quantity
Price/Unit
Total Price (Nu.)
A.Variable Costs:
(i) Labour Used
Nursery raising and management
Man days
4
250
1000
Bed preparation and manure application in greenhouse
Man days
3
250
750
Transplanting
Man days
1
250
250
Mulching
Man days
1
250
250
Irrigation
Man days
2
250
500
Weeding
Man days
0.5
250
125
Nutrient or EM application
Man days
0.75
250
187.5
Staking
Man days
1
250
250
Pruning
Man days
5
250
1250
Hoeing
Man days
0.75
250
187.5
Harvesting
Man days
3
250
750
(ii) Material Cost
250
Tomato Seed (Cosmic hybrid)
Gram
10
250/10g
250
Plastic Mulch
Meter
25x3
7.41
555.75
Vermi-compost
kg
40
22
880
FYM
kg
100
2.5
250
Jute rope for Staking
kg
84
2
168
     Total operating cost
7603.75
Total yield
642kg
Total income considering market rate of Nu.60/kg
Nu.38,520
Net profit=Total income-Total operating cost
Nu. 30,916.25
Cost of production per kg of tomato= Total cost/total yield
Nu.12/kg

(ii) Operating Costs under Artimisia Leaf Mulching
 Activities
Unit
Quantity
Price/Unit
Total Price (Nu.)
A.Variable Costs:
(i) Labour Used
Nursery raising and management
Man days
4
250
1000
Bed preparation and manure application in greenhouse
Man days
3
250
750
Transplanting
Man days
1
250
250
Mulching
Man days
3
250
750
Irrigation
Man days
2
250
500
Weeding
Man days
2
250
500
Nutrient or EM application
Man days
0.75
250
187.5
Staking
Man days
1
250
250
Pruning
Man days
4.5
250
1125
Hoeing
Man days
2
250
500
Harvesting
Man days
2.8
250
700
(ii) Material Cost
Tomato Seed (Cosmic hybrid)
Gram
10
250/10g
250
Vermi-compost
Kg
40
22
880
FYM
Kg
100
2.5
250
Jute rope for Staking
Kg
84
2
168
     Total operating cost
8060.5
Total yield
445.47kg
Total income considering market rate of Nu.60/kg
Nu.26,728
Net profit=Total income-Total operating cost
Nu. 18667.7
Cost of production per kg of tomato= Total cost/total yield
Nu.18/kg

 (ii) Operating Costs under No Mulch Condition 
 Activities
Unit
Quantity
Price/Unit
Total Price (Nu.)
A.Variable Costs:
(i) Labour Used
Nursery raising and management
Man days
4
250
1000
Bed preparation and manure application in greenhouse
Man days
3
250
750
Transplanting
Man days
1
250
250
Irrigation
Man days
2
250
500
Weeding
Man days
6
250
1500
Nutrient or EM application
Man days
0.75
250
187.5
Staking
Man days
1
250
250
Pruning
Man days
4
250
1000
Hoeing
Man days
5
250
1250
Harvesting
Man days
2.5
250
625
(ii) Material Cost
Tomato Seed (Cosmic hybrid)
Gram
10
250/10g
250
Vermi-compost
Kg
40
22
880
FYM
Kg
20
2.5
50
Jute rope for staking
Kg
2
84
168
     Total operating cost
8660.5
Total yield
381.81kg
Total income considering market rate of Nu.60/kg
Nu.22,908
Net profit=Total income-Total operating cost
Nu. 14,248
Cost of production per kg of tomato= Total cost/total yield
Nu.23/kg

 Some other detailed information on the different management operations of Tomato
Date of Sowing: 08.03.18
Date of transplanting: 08.05.18
Total crop duration (sowing-last harvest): 230  days (7-8 months)
Harvest dates:
1st-   9.8.18 
2nd- 17.8.18                                                                           
3rd-   22.8.18                                    
4th- 28.8.18                                      
5th-  30.8.18 
6th-   5.9.18
7th- 12.9.18                                     
8th- 27.9.18   
9th- 6.10.18 
10th- 12.10.18
11th-25.10.18
Total harvest days: 78 days

Plot size: 22.4 m2 each
Plant population: 71
Spacing: 60cm x 50cm between plant-plant and row-row respectively.
Yield/plant: 3kg under Plastic mulched plot
                    2 kg under Artemisia leaf mulched plot
                    1.8 kg under no mulch plot



Summary


Expenses (Nu.)
Production/yield (kg)
Cost of production/kg (Nu.)
Profit (Nu.)
Plastic mulch
7603.75
642
12
30916
Artemisia Mulch
8060.5
445.47
18
18668
No mulch
8660.5
381.81
23
14248






Images depicting Performance of tomato under different mulching conditions:

(a) Under Plastic mulching
          
(b) Under Artemisia Mulching

 


(c) Under No Mulch Condition (Control)


Conclusion:
According to the one season study carried out from March-October 2018, it is evident that the cultivation of tomatoes under plastic mulched condition outperformed the other two conditions.
Accordingly, the cost of production per kilogram of tomato was found to be the lowest in plastic mulched plots with the corresponding higher yields and the highest profit per unit area. On the contrary, the plot with no mulch resulted in the highest cost of production with the corresponding lower yield and lowest profit per unit area.

The highest yield in the plastic mulched plot could be attributed to the very minimal weed pressure and subsequently the vigorous and healthy growth of the plants and fruits. The reduced weed pressure also reduced the incidence of diseases and pests.
The intense weed pressure in the control(no mulch) plots hampered the growth of the plants by way of competing for nutrients and hence resulted in the lowest yield. It also demanded higher labour force, which led to the higher cost of production of tomato per unit area.

While the use of plastic mulch yielded excellent results, the residual impact of non-bio-degradable wastes on soil is a concern. Hence, mulching with locally available and eco-friendly mulch materials like Artimisia leaf may be encouraged on large scale.

Further research is needed to incorporate the fixed costs like the value of the land as well as the depreciation cost of fixed asset like greenhouse and irrigation sets. The trial needs to be replicated as both these parameters weren't taken into consideration in the first year of the trial.

No comments:

Post a Comment